High Priority Investments (HPI)

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LVBC is committed to develop IWRM for the Basin using a step-by-step approach.    For the short term a focus on the pressing and ‘no-regret’ issue of wastewater and sanitation has been chosen. This is reflected in the setup of the IWRM Programme for the LVB which is financed by KfW Development Bank. The focus on pressing and ‘no-regret’ topics has been translated in the concept of High Priority Investments (HPI).

 

Based on a structured selection process, four projects were selected for a full feasibility study. 

 

A brief profile of the selected projects is provided below.

 

HPI 01:

Constructed wetlands in the Nakivubu Wetlands, Kampala, Uganda

 

Kampala is Uganda's administrative and commercial capital city and is located in the Central region of Uganda along the shoreline of Lake Victoria.

 

The Nakivubo Wetland, located on the south-eastern side of Kampala, covers an estimated surface area of 5.29 km2; and, its total catchment area is estimated to extend over 40 km2.

 

Feeding the Wetland is Nakivubo River and its tributaries. Nakivubo Channel is a major open drainage channel that runs through the centre of the city of Kampala with an approximate length of 9 km and approximate catchment area of 50 km2. It traverses through highly populated slum areas of Makerere Kivulu, three busy markets in the city centre and the Kampala industrial area. In dry weather, it has an estimated daily discharge of 50,000 to 60,000 m3.

 

The HPI is to have a constructed wetland within the Nakivubo Wetland to improve the water quality of the channel and eventually act as a tertiary treatment for the new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) which is currently under construction.

 

High priority justification

Discharge of domestic and industrial waste has resulted in contamination by toxic substances, rendering the Lake Victoria water unfit for human use if not treated. The Nakivubo Channel drains directly into the Inner Murchison Bay and carries with it run-off and wastewater especially from formal and informal settlements with limited sanitation facilities.

 

To restore the degraded Nakivubo swamp, through the reconstruction of the wetland for the tertiary treatment of the wastewater effluent and polluted storm water entering the swamp.To improve the environmental sustainability of Inner Murchison Bay through reduction of pollution entering the lake through the channel.

 

HPI 02:

Wastewater treatment and sewerage in Mwanza, Tanzania

 

The project area is Mwanza City, the second largest city in Tanzania. Mwanza is located in the north of Tanzania, directly along the shore of Lake Victoria.

 

The City of Mwanza wants to reduce the pollution load of Mwanza town currently discharged into the Lake Victoria. The rocky soils in Mwanza do not favour affordable on-site sanitation systems. The hilly topography favours the ‘illegal’ emptying of full pits during the rains. Therefore, Mwanza has chosen off-site sanitation as the preferred wastewater management system in the future, expecting the town will grow to 1.9 million inhabitants in 2035.

 

A Wastewater and Sanitation Master Plan is being prepared for the expansion of sewerage. The Master Plan foresees the operation of 3 Wastewater Treatment Plants: the existing WWTP Ilemela in the north, the planned WWTP Igoma in the east and the new WWTP in the south, proposed at Mkuyuni, along the railway track. High-density neighbouring areas are to be connected to the sewerage system by gravity to the WWTP Mkuyuni, thus improving sanitary conditions immediately.

 

The HPI aims at the implementation of the Mkuyuni Waste Water Stabilization Ponds to cater for Mwanza South, which is currently not served with a sewerage network.

 

Operation and maintenance of sewerage is expensive mainly due to high pumping costs (electricity) thus leading to high operational costs. Hence, it is recommended reducing these costs by focussing on the areas that can be served through gravity sewers. In total 7,400 households are to be connected. The capacity of the WWTP is 3,800 m3/d.

 

High priority justification

Currently there is wastewater treatment in the northern part of the city. In future the capacity of the wastewater that can be treated there is limited; mainly due to hydraulic limitation of the current sewerage system. The Mkuyuni WWTP is close to the Lake, targets a highly dense area and has a high impact on the water quality.

 

HPI 03:

Faecal sludge treatment in Kigali, Rwanda

 

The capital of Rwanda, Kigali, hosts 1.2 million people, which is around 10% of the country’s total population. Apart from some neighbourhood sewerage systems and decentralized communal wastewater treatment plants, the population uses on-site systems such as pit latrines and septic tanks. When full, pit latrines are usually closed and a new one is built. If there is insufficient space, pit latrines need to be emptied. When septic tanks are full of sludge, the contents are emptied by means of a vacuum truck. At present, the collected contents are dumped.

 

The current crude dumping of faecal sludge at the Nduba waste dump leads to unacceptable environmental pollution: air, ground- and service water, foul smell and hazards. Hence, it is recommended to cease dumping of faecal sludge at the Nduba waste dump and to replace crude dumping with environmentally sound treatment of collected faecal sludge. To this end, the HPI for a new Faecal Sludge Treatment Plan was developed. After treatment, the sludge shall be used for the production of fuel or compost.

 

Since 1991 the City of Kigali is preparing plans to replace the on-site systems with an off-site system: sewerage followed by wastewater treatment. Up to now there is no funding for this costly system and the City of Kigali realises that it needs to take measures to facilitate

the servicing of on-site systems and the treatment of the collected sludge.

 

High priority justification

The current crude dumping of faecal sludge at the Nduba waste dump leads to unacceptable environmental pollution: air, ground- and surface water, foul smell and hazards. It is recommended to replace the dumping of faecal sludge at the Nduba with environmentally sound treatment of collected septage and faecal sludge.

HPI 04:

Kisumu informal settlement sanitation, Kenya

 

For Kisumu, the selected project area covers sanitation in informal settlements in Kisumu. The sanitation system is based on the principle of condominium sewerage.

 

Condominium sewerage, also indicated as shallow sewers or simplified sewers, describe a sewerage network that is constructed using smaller diameter pipes laid at a shallower depth and at a flatter gradient than conventional sewers. The condominium sewerage allows for a more flexible design associated with lower costs and a higher number of connected households.

 

High priority justification

The sanitary conditions in the informal settlements in Kisumu are very poor: there are insufficient facilities and they are inadequate. Open sewers in Manyatta are discharging into Auji channel, a storm water drainage turned into an ‘open sewer’, which directly drains into Lake Victoria and therefore pollutes the Lake. The Obunga settlements discharge untreated sewage into the Kisat River channel which also drains into Lake Victoria. The channel and the rivers are major point sources of the Lake at the Winam Gulf.

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